multilingual cross reference

This table allows you to translate stop names and technical terms from one language into another. It is important to note that stops in particular are not exactly equivalent across borders: a French Montre is neither an English Open Diapason nor a German Prinzipal, but they are all open flue pipes of similar appearance. French reeds and German principals both tend to be brighter than their English counterparts, for example. Mixtures are particularly tricky, as their role in each country's organs is very different. Another pitfall is that many stops were named before standard spelling, so many archaic variations persist even in modern organs. To find a particular stop name or term, use the "Find in Page" function of your web browser - usually Ctrl F. Stops that only exist in one country's tradition, or whose spelling is common to all countries, are not included here.

Danish Dutch English French German
Stops of the Principal family
PrincipalPraestant / PrincipaalOpen DiapasonMontre / DiapasonPrinzipal
OktavOctaafPrincipal / OctavePrestantOktave
QuintQuint / QuintpraestantTwelfthQuinteQuint
OktavSuperoctaaf / OctaafFifteenth / SuperoctaveDoubletteSuperoktave
MixturMixtuurMixture / FurniturePlein Jeu / FournitureMixtur
ScharfScherpSharp Mixture~Scharff
~~Grave Mixture~Rauschquinte
Stops of the Flute family
QuintatønQuintadenaQuintadenaQuintaton / QuintadéneQuintatön
Metal: Daeksfløte
Wood: Traegedackt
BourdonStopped DiapasonBourdon / Flûte CouverteMetal: Gedact / Gedeckt
Wood: Holzgedact
RørfløjteRoerfluitChimney FluteFlûte à ChemineeRöhrflöte
~~Open FluteFlûte OuverteOffenflöte / Flachflöte
~~Harmonic FluteFlûte HarmoniqueHarmonieflöte
SpidsfløjteSpitsfluitSpire FluteFlûte à FuseauSpitzflöte
~~Traverse FluteFlûte TraversaireTraversflöte
~Fluit Does~Flûte Douce~
~~Harmonic PiccoloOctavin~
NathornNachthoorn~Cor de NuitNachthorn
String and other flue stops
~Fiool/Viool de GambeViola da GambaViole de GambeVioldigamba
~~~Voix CélestesVox Coelestis
~~Bell Gamba~Glockengamba
~~AeolineVoix éolienneAeoline
GemshornGemshoornGemshornFlûte ConiqueGemshorn
~~Bell DiapasonFlûte à Pavillion~
~~Bass FluteFlûteFlötenbaß
SubbasSubbassSub BassSoubasseSubBaß / Untersatz
Reed stops
OboHoboOboe / HautboyHautboisOboe
~~Vox HumanaVoix HumaineVox Humana

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